Vitamins and Minerals ?

Vitamins and Minerals are required for the regulation of the body's metabolic functions, and are found naturally in the foods we eat. Many foods are fortified in order to provide additional nutrients, or to replace nutrients that may have been lost during the processing of the food. Most people are able to obtain satisfactory nutrition from the wide selection of foods.

If a person is not able to eat a variety of foods from the basic food groups, then a vitamin and mineral supplement may be necessary. However, except for certain unusual health conditions, very few persons should need more than 100% of the Recommended Daily Allowance for any single nutrient. Large doses of vitamin and mineral supplements can be harmful.

Vitamins come in two varieties:

  • fat soluble : Fat-soluble vitamins can be stored in the body for long periods of time.
  • water-soluble : excess amounts of water-soluble vitamins are excreted in the urine.

  • Vitamin Usages Sources
    Vitamin A needed for new cell growth, healthy skin, hair, and tissues, and vision in dim lightdark green and yellow vegetables and yellow fruits, such as broccoli spinach, turnip greens, carrots, squash, sweet potatoes, pumpkin, cantaloupe, and apricots, and in animal sources such as liver, milk, butter, cheese, and whole eggs.
    Vitamin D promotes absorption and use of calcium and phosphate for healthy bones and teethmilk (fortified), cheese, whole eggs, liver, salmon, and fortified margarine. The skin can synthesize vitamin D if exposed to enough sunlight on a regular basis.
    Vitamin E protects red blood cells and helps prevent destruction of vitamin A and Cmargarine and vegetable oil (soybean, corn, safflower, and cottonseed), wheat germ, green leafy vegetables.
    Vitamin K necessary for normal blood clotting and synthesis of proteins found in plasma, bone, and kidneys.spinach, lettuce, kale, cabbage, cauliflower, wheat bran, organ meats, cereals, some fruits, meats, dairy products, eggs.
    Vitamin C (Ascorbic acid) an antioxidant vitamin needed for the formation of collagen to hold the cells together and for healthy teeth, gums and blood vessels; improves iron absorption and resistance to infection.many fresh vegetables and fruits, such as broccoli, green and red peppers, collard greens, brussel sprouts, cauliflower, lemon, cabbage, pineapples, strawberries, citrus fruits
    Thiamin (B1) needed for energy metabolism and the proper function of the nervous systemwhole grains, soybeans, peas, liver, kidney, lean cuts of pork, legumes, seeds, and nuts.
    Riboflavin (B2) needed for energy metabolism, building tissue, and helps maintain good vision.dairy products, lean meats, poultry, fish, grains, broccoli, turnip greens, asparagus, spinach, and enriched food products.
    Niacin needed for energy metabolism, proper digestion, and healthy nervous systemlean meats, liver, poultry, milk, canned salmon, leafy green vegetables
    Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine) needed for cell growthchicken, fish, pork, liver, kidney, whole grains, nuts, and legumes
    Folate (Folic Acid) promotes normal digestion; essential for development of red blood cellsliver, yeast, dark green leafy vegetables, legumes, and some fruits
    Vitamin B12 needed for building proteins in the body, red blood cells, and normal function of nervous tissueliver, kidney, yogurt, dairy products, fish, clams, oysters, nonfat dry milk, salmon, sardines

    Minerals Usages Sources
    Calcium needed for healthy bones and teeth, normal blood clotting, and nervous system functioningdairy products, broccoli, cabbage, kale, tofu, sardines and salmon
    Iron needed for the formation of hemoglobin, which carries oxygen from the lungs to the body cellsmeats, eggs, dark green leafy vegetables, legumes, whole grains and enriched food products
    Phosphorus needed for healthy bones and teeth, energy metabolism, and acidbase balance in the bodymilk, grains, lean meats, food additives
    Potassium essential for maintaining proper fluid balance, nerve impulse function, muscle function, cardiac (heart muscle) function bananas, raisins, apricots, oranges, avacadoes, dates, cantaloupe, watermelon, prunes, broccoli, spinach, carrots, potato, sweet potato, winter squash, mushrooms, peas, lentils, dried beans, peanuts, milk, yogurt, lean meats
    Magnesium needed for healthy bones and teeth, proper nervous system functioning, and energy metabolismdairy products, meat, fish, poultry, green vegetables, legumes
    Zinc needed for cell reproduction, tissue growth and repairmeat, seafood, and liver, eggs, milk, whole-grain products
    Pantothenic Acid needed for energy metabolismegg yolk, liver, kidney, yeast, broccoli, lean beef, skim milk, sweet potatoes, molasses
    Copper needed for synthesis of hemoglobin, proper iron metabolism, and maintenance of blood vesselsseafood, nuts, legumes, green leafy vegetables
    Manganese needed for enzyme structure whole grain products, fruits and vegetables, tea