Vitamins and Minerals ?
Vitamins and Minerals are required for the regulation of the body's metabolic functions, and are found naturally in the foods we eat. Many foods are fortified in order to provide additional nutrients, or to replace nutrients that may have been lost during the processing of the food. Most people are able to obtain satisfactory nutrition from the wide selection of foods.
If a person is not able to eat a variety of foods from the basic food groups, then a vitamin and mineral supplement may be necessary. However, except for certain unusual health conditions, very few persons should need more than 100% of the Recommended Daily Allowance for any single nutrient. Large doses of vitamin and mineral supplements can be harmful.
Vitamins come in two varieties:
fat soluble: Fat-soluble vitamins can be stored in the body for long periods of time.
water-soluble: excess amounts of water-soluble vitamins are excreted in the urine.
|Vitamin A||needed for new cell growth, healthy skin, hair, and tissues, and vision in dim light||dark green and yellow vegetables and yellow fruits, such as broccoli spinach, turnip greens, carrots, squash, sweet potatoes, pumpkin, cantaloupe, and apricots, and in animal sources such as liver, milk, butter, cheese, and whole eggs.|
|Vitamin D||promotes absorption and use of calcium and phosphate for healthy bones and teeth||milk (fortified), cheese, whole eggs, liver, salmon, and fortified margarine. The skin can synthesize vitamin D if exposed to enough sunlight on a regular basis.|
|Vitamin E||protects red blood cells and helps prevent destruction of vitamin A and C||margarine and vegetable oil (soybean, corn, safflower, and cottonseed), wheat germ, green leafy vegetables.|
|Vitamin K||necessary for normal blood clotting and synthesis of proteins found in plasma, bone, and kidneys.||spinach, lettuce, kale, cabbage, cauliflower, wheat bran, organ meats, cereals, some fruits, meats, dairy products, eggs.|
|Vitamin C (Ascorbic acid)||an antioxidant vitamin needed for the formation of collagen to hold the cells together and for healthy teeth, gums and blood vessels; improves iron absorption and resistance to infection.||many fresh vegetables and fruits, such as broccoli, green and red peppers, collard greens, brussel sprouts, cauliflower, lemon, cabbage, pineapples, strawberries, citrus fruits|
|Thiamin (B1)||needed for energy metabolism and the proper function of the nervous system||whole grains, soybeans, peas, liver, kidney, lean cuts of pork, legumes, seeds, and nuts.|
|Riboflavin (B2)||needed for energy metabolism, building tissue, and helps maintain good vision.||dairy products, lean meats, poultry, fish, grains, broccoli, turnip greens, asparagus, spinach, and enriched food products.|
|Niacin||needed for energy metabolism, proper digestion, and healthy nervous system||lean meats, liver, poultry, milk, canned salmon, leafy green vegetables|
|Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine)||needed for cell growth||chicken, fish, pork, liver, kidney, whole grains, nuts, and legumes|
|Folate (Folic Acid)||promotes normal digestion; essential for development of red blood cells||liver, yeast, dark green leafy vegetables, legumes, and some fruits|
|Vitamin B12||needed for building proteins in the body, red blood cells, and normal function of nervous tissue||liver, kidney, yogurt, dairy products, fish, clams, oysters, nonfat dry milk, salmon, sardines|
|Calcium||needed for healthy bones and teeth, normal blood clotting, and nervous system functioning||dairy products, broccoli, cabbage, kale, tofu, sardines and salmon|
|Iron||needed for the formation of hemoglobin, which carries oxygen from the lungs to the body cells||meats, eggs, dark green leafy vegetables, legumes, whole grains and enriched food products|
|Phosphorus||needed for healthy bones and teeth, energy metabolism, and acidbase balance in the body||milk, grains, lean meats, food additives|
|Potassium||essential for maintaining proper fluid balance, nerve impulse function, muscle function, cardiac (heart muscle) function||bananas, raisins, apricots, oranges, avacadoes, dates, cantaloupe, watermelon, prunes, broccoli, spinach, carrots, potato, sweet potato, winter squash, mushrooms, peas, lentils, dried beans, peanuts, milk, yogurt, lean meats|
|Magnesium||needed for healthy bones and teeth, proper nervous system functioning, and energy metabolism||dairy products, meat, fish, poultry, green vegetables, legumes|
|Zinc||needed for cell reproduction, tissue growth and repair||meat, seafood, and liver, eggs, milk, whole-grain products|
|Pantothenic Acid||needed for energy metabolism||egg yolk, liver, kidney, yeast, broccoli, lean beef, skim milk, sweet potatoes, molasses|
|Copper||needed for synthesis of hemoglobin, proper iron metabolism, and maintenance of blood vessels||seafood, nuts, legumes, green leafy vegetables|
|Manganese||needed for enzyme structure||whole grain products, fruits and vegetables, tea|