Python Program to Add Two Matrices


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In Python, we can implement a matrix as nested list (list inside a list). We can treat each element as a row of the matrix. For example X = [[1, 2], [4, 5], [3, 6]] would represent a 3×2 matrix. First row can be selected as X[0] and the element in first row, first column can be selected as X[0][0].

We can perform matrix addition in various ways in Python. Here are a couple of them.

Matrix Addition using Nested Loop

Source Code:

# Program to add two matrices using nested loop

X = [[12,7,3],
    [4 ,5,6],
    [7 ,8,9]]

Y = [[5,8,1],
    [6,7,3],
    [4,5,9]]

result = [[0,0,0],
         [0,0,0],
         [0,0,0]]

# iterate through rows
for i in range(len(X)):
   # iterate through columns
   for j in range(len(X[0])):
       result[i][j] = X[i][j] + Y[i][j]

for r in result:
   print(r)

Output:

[17, 15, 4]
[10, 12, 9]
[11, 13, 18]

In this program we have used nested for loops to iterate through each row and each column. At each point we add the corresponding elements in the two matrices and store it in the result.

Matrix Addition using Nested List Comprehension

Source Code:

# Program to add two matrices
# using list comprehension

X = [[12,7,3],
    [4 ,5,6],
    [7 ,8,9]]

Y = [[5,8,1],
    [6,7,3],
    [4,5,9]]

result = [[X[i][j] + Y[i][j]  for j in range(len(X[0]))] for i in range(len(X))]

for r in result:
   print(r)

The output of this program is the same as above. We have used nested list comprehension to iterate through each element in the matrix. List comprehension allows us to write concise codes and we must try to use them frequently in Python. They are very helpful.






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